His homilies were expressed in the conventional manner, utilizing the uncompromising rhetorical form known as the psogos Greek: blame. In his sermons, Chrysostom criticized those "Judaizing Christians", who were participating in Jewish festivals and taking part in other Jewish observances, such as observing the sabbath , submitting to circumcision and pilgrimage to Jewish holy places. Thus a specifically Christian anti-Semitism, presenting the Jews as murderers of Christ , was grafted on to the seething mass of pagan smears and rumours, and Jewish communities were now at risk in every Christian city. His works were frequently quoted and reprinted as a witness for the prosecution. According to Walter Laqueur , it was argued that in the 4th century, the general discourse was brutal and aggressive and that at the time when the Christian church was fighting for survival and recognition, mercy and forgiveness were not in demand.
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Main article: Marcion of Sinope According to Tertullian and other writers of early proto-orthodox Christianity , the movement known as Marcionism began with the teachings and excommunication of Marcion around Marcion was reportedly a wealthy shipowner, the son of a bishop of Sinope of Pontus , Asia Minor.
He arrived in Rome c. The organization continued in the East for some centuries later, particularly outside the Byzantine Empire in areas which later would be dominated by Manichaeism.
Others consider that there are not only two, but three natures. Of these, Syneros was the leader and chief. Focusing on the Pauline traditions of the Gospel, Marcion felt that all other conceptions of the Gospel, and especially any association with the Old Testament religion, was opposed to, and a backsliding from, the truth. He further regarded the arguments of Paul regarding law and gospel , wrath and grace, works and faith, flesh and spirit, sin and righteousness, death and life, as the essence of religious truth.
He ascribed these aspects and characteristics as two principles, the righteous and wrathful God of the Old Testament, who is at the same time identical with the creator of the world, and a second God of the Gospel who is only love and mercy. In the God of the [Old Testament] he saw a being whose character was stern justice, and therefore anger, contentiousness and unmercifulness.
As the law which governs the world is inflexible and yet, on the other hand, full of contradictions, just and again brutal, and as the law of the Old Testament exhibits the same features, so the God of creation was to Marcion a being who united in himself the whole gradations of attributes from justice to malevolence, from obstinacy to inconsistency.
Marcion called God, the Stranger God, or the Alien God, in some translations, as this deity had not had any previous interactions with the world, and was wholly unknown. See also the Unknown God of Hellenism and the Areopagus sermon. In various popular sources, Marcion is often reckoned among the Gnostics , but as the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 3rd ed.
In Henry Wace stated: A modern divine would turn away from the dreams of Valentinianism in silent contempt; but he could not refuse to discuss the question raised by Marcion, whether there is such opposition between different parts of what he regards as the word of God, that all cannot come from the same author.
A primary difference between Marcionites and Gnostics was that the Gnostics based their theology on secret wisdom as, for example, Valentinius who claimed to receive the secret wisdom from Theudas who received it direct from Paul of which they claimed to be in possession, whereas Marcion based his theology on the contents of the Letters of Paul and the recorded sayings of Jesus — in other words, an argument from scripture, with Marcion defining what was and was not scripture.
Also, the Christology of the Marcionites is thought to have been primarily Docetic , denying the human nature of Christ. This may have been due to the unwillingness of Marcionites to believe that Jesus was the son of both God the Father and the demiurge.
Mead does. Mead claimed Marcionism makes certain points of contact with Gnosticism in its view that the creator of the material world is not the true deity, rejection of materialism and affirmation of a transcendent, purely good spiritual realm in opposition to the evil physical realm, the belief Jesus was sent by the "True" God to save humanity, the central role of Jesus in revealing the requirements of salvation, the belief Paul had a special place in the transmission of this "wisdom", and its docetism.
The pure gospel, however, Marcion found to be everywhere more or less corrupted and mutilated in the Christian circles of his time. His undertaking thus resolved itself into a reformation of Christendom. This reformation was to deliver Christendom from false Jewish doctrines by restoring the Pauline conception of the gospel , Paul being, according to Marcion, the only apostle who had rightly understood the new message of salvation as delivered by Christ.
This of itself shows that it is a mistake to reckon Marcion among the Gnostics. A dualist he certainly was, but he was not a Gnostic. Marcionism shows the influence of Hellenistic philosophy on Christianity, and presents a moral critique of the Old Testament from the standpoint of Platonism.
According to Harnack, the sect may have led other Christians to introduce a formal statement of beliefs into their liturgy see Creed and to formulate a canon of authoritative Scripture of their own, thus eventually producing the current canon of the New Testament.
As for the main question, however, whether he knew of, or assumes the existence of, a written New Testament of the Church in any sense whatever, in this case an affirmatory answer is most improbable, because if this were so he would have been compelled to make a direct attack upon the New Testament of the Church, and if such an attack had been made we should have heard of it from Tertullian. His polemic would necessarily have been much less simple if he had been opposed to a Church which, by possessing a New Testament side by side with the Old Testament, had ipso facto placed the latter under the shelter of the former.
In particular, he refused to re-admit those who recanted their faith under Roman persecution; see also Lapsi Christian. It also included ten of the Pauline epistles , in the following order: Galatians , 1 Corinthians , 2 Corinthians , Romans , 1 Thessalonians , 2 Thessalonians , Laodiceans , Colossians , Philippians , Philemon.
In bringing together these texts, Marcion redacted what is perhaps the first New Testament canon on record, which he called the Gospel and the Apostolikon, which reflects his belief in the writings of Jesus and the apostle Paul respectively.
The Prologues to the Pauline Epistles which are not a part of the text, but short introductory sentences as one might find in modern study Bibles  , found in several older Latin codices , are now widely believed to have been written by Marcion or one of his followers.
Harnack makes the following claim:  We have indeed long known that Marcionite readings found their way into the ecclesiastical text of the Pauline Epistles, but now for seven years we have known that Churches actually accepted the Marcionite prefaces to the Pauline Epistles! De Bruyne has made one of the finest discoveries of later days in proving that those prefaces, which we read first in Codex Fuldensis and then in numbers of later manuscripts, are Marcionite, and that the Churches had not noticed the cloven hoof.
Conversely, several early Latin codices contain Anti-Marcionite prologues to the Gospels.
Marcion was a Jew-hater, who rejected the Old Testament, and any bits of the New Testament, books or passages, which disagreed with him. This lead the church to start the definition of the canon. None of his works are now extant, which makes this treatise the primary source for Marcionism. In Book 3, ch 24, there is a reference to the lost De spe fidelium. This is followed by a description of a heavenly city seen in the clouds in the East early every morning for 40 days, even by pagans. In Book 4, the Psalms are quoted by number. Tertullian refers to the 3rd and 4th book of Kings
Satis etenim praeiudicatum est Christum non alterius dei intellegendum quam creatoris, cum determinatum est alium deum non credendum praeter creatorem, quem adeo Christus praedicaverit, et deinceps apostoli non alterius Christum adnuntiaverint quam eius dei quem Christus praedicavit, id est creatoris, ut nulla mentio alterius dei atque ita nec alterius Christi agitata sit ante scandalum Marcionis. Quod etiam primo libello intexui. Sed et nunc congressio ista seorsum in Christum examinatura eo utique proficiet, ut dum Christum probamus creatoris, sic quoque deus excludatur Marcionis. Decet veritatem totis viribus uti suis, non ut laborantem: ceterum in praescriptionum compendiis vincit: sed [decretum est] ut gestientem ubique adversario occurrere, in tantum furenti ut facilius praesumpserit eum venisse Christum qui nunquam sit adnuntiatus quam eum qui semper sit praedicatus. Primo quia et ipse dei sui filius.