ANTRAQUINONAS PDF

Synthesis[ edit ] There are several current industrial methods to produce 9,Anthraquinone: The oxidation of anthracene , a reaction that is localized at the central ring. Chromium VI is the typical oxidant. The Friedel-Crafts reaction of benzene and phthalic anhydride in presence of AlCl3 producing o-benzoylbenzoic acid which then undergoes cyclization, forming anthraquinone. This reaction is useful for producing substituted anthraquinones.

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Synthesis[ edit ] There are several current industrial methods to produce 9,Anthraquinone: The oxidation of anthracene , a reaction that is localized at the central ring. Chromium VI is the typical oxidant. The Friedel-Crafts reaction of benzene and phthalic anhydride in presence of AlCl3 producing o-benzoylbenzoic acid which then undergoes cyclization, forming anthraquinone. This reaction is useful for producing substituted anthraquinones.

The Diels-Alder reaction of naphthoquinone and butadiene followed by oxidative dehydrogenation The acid-catalyzed dimerization of styrene to give a 1,3-diphenylbutene, which then can be transformed to the anthraquinone.

It also arises via the Rickert-Alder reaction , a retro-Diels-Alder reaction. Reactions[ edit ] Hydrogenation gives dihydroanthraquinone anthrahydroquinone. Reduction with copper gives anthrone. Synthetic dyes are often derived from 9,anthraquinone, such as alizarin. Selection of anthraquinone dyes. From the left: C. Vat Violet 1, which is applied by transfer printing using sublimation, a blue colorant commonly used in gasoline, and C. Disperse Red Digester additive in papermaking[ edit ] 9,Anthraquinone is used as a digester additive in production of paper pulp by alkaline processes, like the Kraft , the alkaline sulfite or the Soda-AQ processes.

The anthraquinone is a redox catalyst. The reaction mechanism may involve single electron transfer SET. The anthraquinone is reduced to 9,dihydroxyanthracene which then can react with lignin. The lignin is degraded and becomes more watersoluble and thereby more easy to wash away from the pulp, while the antraquinone is regenerated.

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