Dietrich Bartel then turns to more detailed considerations of the musical-rhetorical figures that were developed in Baroque treatises and publications. Reviews of the Musica Poetica: Musical Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music To date regarding the guide we have Musica Poetica: Musical Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music suggestions users are yet to but remaining their own review of the overall game, or you cannot make out the print still. However, should you have already look at this guide and you are wanting to help make his or her results well request you to hang around to go away an assessment on our website we can release both bad and the good evaluations. Put simply, "freedom of speech" Most of us completely helped. Your current responses to book Musica Poetica: Musical Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music - additional audience is able to come to a decision about a publication.
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Welcome to Musicapoetica. Such is the text of the Duetto, the second movement of J. He seems to be saying that, if by chance the text itself is not clear enough, the lucky Leipzig listeners on the Fourteenth Sunday after Trinity in 3 will get the message by having the affections of their souls roused by the music itself.
While it will not provide by any means an exhaustive study of the topics, if it helps performers to understand these from an 18th-century musica poetica perspective, it will have met its purpose. Bach brings the traditions of rhetoric and oratory, faith, and reason together in his music. Rhetoric and Oratory He was the product of the Lateinschule tradition, with its roots in the classical tradition, and understood well how to use rhetoric as a pedagogical and motivational tool.
The rules of oratory and rhetoric provided a vocabulary of commonly understood gestures that composers used to "paint" the affects. The northern composer was not so much interested in display or operatic fireworks, or in dramatic effect for its own sake, but in the sober understanding of the text and its presentation in a musical setting that revealed the meaning and communicated the message.
Good musical organization was a cornerstone of the practice. The dispositio was carefully considered, and the appropriate tonalities and figures, aspects of the elocutio, were then chosen. From classical rhetoric, however, the theory overlapped into the epistolary genre and poetic composition, and acquired special significance in the art of preaching, in which it achieved a medieval perfection which was simultaneously intellectualist and Scholastic.
Here it developed -- at the time, moreover, when polyphony was coming into general use -- in accordance with precise rules governing the theme and countertheme, their subdivisions, their development of countertheme, the return or the passage from one sentence to another.
This is composition of incredible complexity, the theoretical simplicity and verbal virtuosity of which astonish us just as they were admired by medieval connoisseurs. The medieval sermon, the technical beauty i. From Boethius onwards theorists embraced the Pythagorean ideal of music as a kind of speculative celestial mathematics. It was included among the subjects of the quadrivium, along with arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy, and so was taught by a member of the mathematics faculty.
Practical music, applied music, performance, was considered as more of a craft that dealt with elocution and delivery, and so was aligned with rhetoric and oratory in the trivium, made up of grammar, dialectic, and rhetoric. Musica poetica was an idea and practice of a piece with his education. Music was a speaking art, and a primary tool in teaching, especially the Protestant teaching of salvation by grace through faith. Faith When we venture to understand musica poetica as practiced by Bach, we encounter another great feat of integration, that of the world of Lutheran salvation by grace through faith with the rationalized figures of musica poetica.
It is this consilience the linking of facts and theory across disciplines that is central to Bach, to 18th-century and Enlightenment thought, and, importantly for us, it also lies at the core of the phenomenon of musica poetica.
Bach was not the "backward-looking" traditionalist he is so often portrayed to be. He was a participant in his times, his times were changing rapidly and continuously, and he was certainly not immune to the zephyrs of the new.
But before delving deeper into musica poetica proper, we will need to understand some Luther in order to see how the midth century departed from the God-centered world-view. This will provide us with context so that we can begin to hear what the Duetto is saying to us, how it is attempting to persuade and edify us, how it tries to move our souls. It is not important for the reader to have faith as Luther did, or to believe in the utter rationality of the world, as the 18th century tended to do.
What is important is to enter willingly into these worlds for a while to see things as Bach might have, as his congregations might have, as his children and friends might have, the better to understand how his music works.
The Catholic system is a system of objective, quantitative, and relative relations between God and man for the sake of providing eternal happiness for man. This is the basic structure: objective, not personal; quantitative, not qualitative; relative and condititioned, not absolute.
It is an I-thou relationship, mediated not by anybody or anything, but only by accepting the message of acceptance, which is the content of the Bible. This is not an objective status in which one is; it is a personal relationship which Luther called "faith", not faith in something which one can believe, but acceptance of the fact that one is accepted. It is qualitative, not quantitative.
Either a person is separated from God or he is not. There are no quantitative degrees of separation or non-separation. Likewise, it is unconditional and not conditioned, as it is in the Roman system. And if not united, one is separated. The one state is unconditionally positive, the other unconditionally negative.
The Reformation restated the unconditional categories of the Bible. It is always teaching the lesson that one is saved by grace through faith - it is completely sufficient. Reason Reason is that function of consciousness through which we make sense of our world. The Enlightenment, the Age of Reason as it has been called grew out of the work of Bacon, Locke, Hume, Winckelmann 9 , Lessing 10 and others, permeated all Europe, and Bach was right in the middle of it.
His life spans a time when the air was alive with new ideas alongside the old. He embodies the perspective with its emphasis on preaching the Word inherited from the Reformation as transmitted through the 16th and 17th centuries. In contrast, the music around him in his maturity and of succeeding generations, was the product of a people who increasingly came to consider that Christianity itself had been responsible for too many of the crimes of Western civilization, and that, rather than encouraging acceptable social behaviour, Christianity had simply fostered superstition, ignorance, and blind obedience to the rules and dogmas of the Church.
Grace: a term of salvation to Luther and Bach, a term of ignorance to the 18th-century philosophes, who wanted not to accept through belief, but who wanted simply to know. It is a difference of critical importance to performers of 18th-century music. To Bach, music was a powerful didactic tool. Its melodic, harmonic, and formal gestures were codified in to a musical-rhetorical vocabulary that provided composers with the resources to communicate the affective content of the text.
Instrumental music, too, used the same toolkit to create a "musical oration" capable of "speaking" in and of itself. The music thus became a "redende Kunst", a speaking art, and a bearer of carefully focused affect. It is important to note in this connection that in saying that the music bears affect we do not imply that music must mean anything other than what it is, a fabric of tensional sonorous dynamic relationships.
It is, however, in and through this play of dynamic energies that figures and gestures by their very physiognomy embody and evoke affect.
These figures had been variously defined over the years in treatise after treatise, whose authors included such distinguished musicians as Johann Mattheson, Walther, Vogt, and Spiess. These figures are of signal importance, because they formed the gestural vocabulary of the musical style. Bach was, after all, probably the greatest exponent of Protestant Lutheran thought and doctrine after Martin Luther himself, and he is always teaching us something in his music.
Performers of this music owe it to themselves and to their listeners to educate themselves in the ways of musica poetica, and become at ease with its baroque mechanisms. Dispositio: Organization and Form If you are going to make a speech, the first thing you must do is to decide what you will talk about: you must choose the subject matter, the theme. This was known as the inventio, and the orator relied on the loci topici, or the likely topics for elaboration.
The topic text Ex. We as humans admit that we fail with each step in life, yet we know that You seek out the sick and those who have strayed , as we regularly do, and we ask that you look upon us mercifully and grant us salvation through your Grace. Du suchest die Kranken und Irrenden treulich. We hasten with weak [feeble], yet eager footsteps, Oh Jesus, Oh Master, to seek after your help! You tirelessly seek out the sick and those who have gone astray.
Oh, hear us, as we, our voices raised, pray for your help! May your merciful countenance be gracious unto us! Once the topic was chosen, the musical orator had to structure the presentation such that the message be clearly stated, supported with illustration and example, that contrary points of view be introduced and confuted, and the argument restated in summary. Such was the essence of the dispositio, the next area of concern for the musicus poeticus. The dispositio has six sections: Ex.
Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music
Kagalar Joseph marked it as to-read Oct 08, Edmond marked it as to-read Oct 16, A kind of summary employed in the peroratio. Clicking the M-link takes you to a page of musical definitions and examples. Repetition of the same word or words in the middle of successive sentences. The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and middle of successive sentences. A compositional device in which a principal voice is imitated by subsequent voices.
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Akinotaur No trivia or quizzes yet. The Figures of Rhetoric and of Musica Poetica. To ask other readers questions about Musica Poeticaplease sign up. Ambiguity of grammatical structure, often occasioned by mispunctuation. Gunther Martens marked it as to-read Jan 13, A kind of enargia. John Wimmer marked it as to-read Jul 16, If the figure is highlighted as a link, you can click on it to get more information. Gustavo added it Feb 14, Speaking in such a way as to imply the contrary of what one says, often for the purpose of derision, mockery, or jest.