When I finished studying the documents and the narrations of the case besides its environments, I found that what was written on those pieces of paper was fit as draft for a sufficient study for the case. Fadak — Wikipedia The Hiwtory of Allah received three things exclusively to himself: This is a work that I seized the opportunity of one of our holidays in our splendid university-the University of Holy Najaf-to apply myself to study one of the Islamic history problems. They passed it from hand to hand untill their caliphate expired and passed away to Banu al Abbas. They owed this estate either in their position as Caliphs, or they used to return it to the descendants of Fatimah sa when they had decided to be just governors. It became mine and and al Walids and Sulaymans two sons of Abd al Malik. Fadak became the object of dispute between Bistory and the caliph Abu Bakr after Muhammad died.
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Situated north of Medina, at a distance of 2 or 3 days journey, it was a very fertile land, where according to the report of Ibn Abil Hadid, date-groves were not less than those of Kufa of 13th century 1 and whose income was between 24, and 70, dinars.
Some of their fortresses were taken; two or three were besieged. At last, they proposed a deal that their life, religion, honour etc. The agreement was concluded; the Jews were allowed to work on the land on behalf of the Muslims, and the produce was shared between the Jews and the Muslims half and half. When the Jews of Fadak heard of the battle of Khaibar and the resulting agreement, they began thinking about themselves. At the same time a messenger came to them from Medina inviting them to Islam.
They refused to accept Islam, but, on their own accord, offered peace on following terms:- a They would give half of their land to the Prophet, the other half remaining in their possession.
The Prophet accepted these terms. They were allowed to take whatever their camels could carry except arms. It was not for their "maintenance" only. In the same way Fadak became a personal property of the Prophet; and he managed it himself. The Prophet asked Jibril the meaning of this revelation. He said: Give Fadak to Fatimah; it will be a source of income to her and her children.
This continued till the Prophet died and Abu Bakr took the possession of Fadak by force. Now Fatimah protested against this usurpation of her property, saying that the Prophet had given it to her. Abu Bakr asked her to produce witnesses to prove it. Now Fatimah was already in possession of the property; and according to the Islamic principles, possession itself is a sufficient proof of ownership.
If Abu Bakr claimed that property for himself or for Muslim nation, then it was he, as claimant, who should have produced witnesses to support his claim.
But he put the onus of proof on Fatimah, disregarding Islamic Law. Again, as he was a claimant, he should not have judged the case himself. But he did not care for judicial niceties so long as his purpose was served.
Abu Bakr said that there should be either two males or one male and two female witnesses. Also Islam accepts one witness coupled with the oath of the claimant as a sufficient proof.
Now there were more witnesses than the minimum required. And there is not a single Muslim in the world who can say that they could tell lies. But Abu Bakr rejected their evidence explicitly saying that their evidence was motivated by self-interest - in other words, they were lying!!
He forgot that she was his wife and therefore her evidence against his views was more telling. And, by the way, is it necessary that a witness should not be a friend of the party for whom he is appearing - that only the evidence given by an enemy should be accepted?
C Umm Ayman was a non-Arab and she could not speak Arabic fluently. The Prophet had inherited her, married her to Zaid b. Or only Arabs are truthful and trustworthy? This ruthlessness of the Khalifa prevented others to come forward and give evidence on behalf of Fatimah. The purpose of witness is to establish veracity or otherwise of a claim. If one is satisfied of the truth of a claim, the number of witnesses becomes a mere formality, which in some cases was dispensed with even by Abu Bakr.
Jabir b. Abu Bakr accepted the claim without asking for any witness. Now, Abu Bakr came with an ingenious reply. He said: "I have heard the Messenger of Allah saying.
Do you want the custom of the days of ignorance? Surely, it is clear for you like the midday sun that I am his daughter. Would I be prevailed over my inheritance? O Son of Abu Qahafa! Is it in the book of Allah, that thou shouldst inherit from thy father, and I would not inherit my father? Surely, thou hast brought a slanderous thing.
Zakariya: When called he, i. Verily my bones are weakened and my head does glisten with grey hoariness Or do you say that people of two different religions do not inherit from each other? Abu Bakr was the claimant, and he produced a hadith which up to that time no companion of the Prophet had ever heard. As he was so fond of formalities and procedures, why did not he produce two male witnesses to vouch his narration? Let us accept, for the sake of argument, that it was a genuine hadith.
Now, who should have been informed of it by the Prophet, his would be heirs daughter, wives, uncle, cousin etc. Common sense says that it was the family-members who should have been told by the Prophet that "Look, when I die, all that I leave shall become charity; you will not inherit anything because I am a Prophet and prophets are not inherited from.
Why did he keep his daughter, wives and uncle in dark, thus starting a bitter quarrel between Khalifa and his family-members? One may wonder why Abu Bakr did not accept the valid and irrefutable arguments of Fatimah? Apparently it could have done him no harm if he had accepted the claim of Fatimah.
But why did they usurp it in the first place? Be as it may. The high-handedness used in this case totally negated the two legacies which the Prophet s. They degraded the Progeny of the Prophet in the public eyes. It has been published by an-Najah Publishers, Cairo, in A. Ibn Tawus, Kashful-Mahajjah, p.
Tarikh Abul Fida, vol. VIII, p. Bukhari, Sahih, Muslim, Sahih. If a daughter is prevented from inheriting her father, it is a slander. It is said that Zakariya meant inheritance of prophethood. If so, than what is the sense of his fear "and verily I fear my kindred after me"?
Was he afraid that his kindred would become prophet after him?
FADAK IN HISTORY
See also: Sermon of Fadak Upon the death of Muhmmad, his daughter Fatimah declared her claim to inherit Fadak as the estate of her father. The claim was rejected by the ruling caliph, Abu Bakr, on the grounds that Fadak was public property and arguing that Muhammad had no heirs. Sources report that Ali together with Umm Ayman Barakah testified to the fact that Muhammad granted it to Fatimah Zahra, when Abu Bakr requested Fatima to summon witnesses for her claim. When asked by Muhammad, who the "Dhul Qurba" referred to, Gabriel replied "Fatima" and that by "rights" was meant "Fadak", upon which Muhammad called Fatima and presented Fadak to her. His response left her dumbfounded. It was part of the Muslim charitable trust to be administered by him as Caliph. Fadak was conquered by Muhammad.
There is a dispute between Muslim scholars at this point. Rasulullah s asked who was meant from "Dhul Qurba" and what is meant from "Right". Jibrael as replied that "Dhul Qurba" refers to Fatima Zahra r , and from right it is meant the property of "Fadak". The Prophet s called Fatima and presented Fadak to her. God and his Apostle, the near kin, the orphans, the needy and the wayfarers.
A Shi'ite Encyclopedia
It comprised of seven villages with considerable land revenue. A peace treaty was made after the battle of Khayber according to which one-half of Fadak was to be retained by the landowners of Fadak and the other half was to be the property of the Holy Prophet pbuh. Hence the Holy Prophet pbuh called Fatima s. She leased the land and its revenue was collected in three installments.
Fadak In History
Kazilkis Views Read Edit View history. Umar was the most harsh person in keeping Fatimah sa from Fadak and her inheritance as he himself confessed: I wrote them down on separate pieces of paper. When I finished studying the documents and the narrations of the case besides its environments, I found that what was written on those pieces of paper was fit as draft for a sufficient study for the case. Is it then that the judgement of the times of pagan ignorance they desire? Fadak became the object of dispute between Fatimah and the caliph Abu Bakr after Muhammad died.
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