Larva: adult larvae are beige-brown in colour, with whitish longitudinal striae. Laterally, there is a beige line and ventrally a dark brown streak. The longitudinal markings are more or less obvious according to the developmental stage. Occasionally they may be absent. The contents of the stomach of the feeding larvae are greenish in colour and are visible through the skin. Before moulting and pupation the larvae take on a pale straw-yellow colouring.
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Larva: adult larvae are beige-brown in colour, with whitish longitudinal striae. Laterally, there is a beige line and ventrally a dark brown streak.
The longitudinal markings are more or less obvious according to the developmental stage. Occasionally they may be absent. The contents of the stomach of the feeding larvae are greenish in colour and are visible through the skin. Before moulting and pupation the larvae take on a pale straw-yellow colouring. The maximum length in L5 is mm. Colour and pattern of the younger larvae are similar to those of the adults, but less marked. Width of the head LI 0. Pupa : the pu p a is smooth brown in colour.
The cremaster is roundish Fig. Length : mm. During hibernation they were put on potted Festuca ovina and Nardus stricta. All his larvae hibernated once. Breeding report by G. H esselbarth reared his larvae on cut Poa annua in transparent plastic boxes at Fig. Magnification Urs J a u c h. Photograph 15 Erebia claudina B o r k h a u s e n , Fig. This databank is the basis for the Austrian distribution atlas of Rhopalocera by R e i c h l These records have been checked and completed by G.
Remarks : 1 E. Collection of data and printing of the map by courtesy of M. According to H em m ing , vol. Partial reproduction of plate nr 50 of the edition of the Central Library of Zurich. He described both sexes of claudina in Ann. Soc, Fr. The characteristic white points are not clearly visible in all printed editions. In the copy of the Natural History Museum in Vienna, the white dots are barely visible and in the copy of the Bavarian Natural History Museum in Munich they are absent.
Photograph : D. J u tzeler. Approximately 24 larvae hatched on August 25th. The first moult was observed on October 4th, when 18 caterpillars where counted. On October 24th the second moult started ; the larvae measured 9 mm.
Upon examination on November 16th, December 27th, January 11th and February 15th, the caterpillars were disturbed and some fell to the ground. Several died having failed to find their way back onto the grass. Diapause was interrupted on February 22nd. The larvae were now kept at room temperature and gradually resumed feeding. On March 7th, 8 caterpillars were still present. They now grew rapidly and measured mm on March 15th.
On April 10th, 5 pupae, presumably several days old, were found standing upright between the basic parts of the blades. Discussion Two-year larval period? A second hibernation in L4 cannot even be ruled out in the case of larvae hibernating in L3. According to my personal experience, the size of the larvae in the various stages overlap and therefore it is not possible to determine exactly what instar a caterpillar is in without measuring the width of the head.
But this was no more the case during the last years. S tangelmaier reported that the species was in the same habitat on the Zirbitzkogel as frequent in as in observation by L.
T schinder , Klagenfurt. On the Rosennock Nock mountains , E. W ieser. Maybe the larval development has accelerated in the warm winters of the last years, as recorded by D. The assertion by Warren : , according to which claudina should be more frequent in even years than in odd ones, may be interpreted in a similar way. Could the recent warming-up of our climate be the cause of the yearly and numerous emerging of E.
If it is very rainy in July, the butterfly can still be found in August. On the Radstadter Tauern pass the extreme dates are July 3rd and August 15th.
The fully formed imago rests within the pupa without emerging until the weather clears up. The species is found mainly between und m, as also reported by M eier and C leve It reaches the edge of the tree-line 17 between m north of the Tauern and m locally in the Lungau and in Carinthia. Many populations of claudina live near the tree-line where they fly locally in meadows containing sparse trees or at the edge of woods at sunny sites. G, S tangelmaier in lift. T hurner also states that in Carinthia this species is found between and m.
This is not correct. E mbacher. Doubtful data on the altitudinal distribution of E. E mbacher in the region of the Rotgiilden lakes, the species does indeed rise above the tree-line. The actual upper limit of the species presumably lies between the lower m and the upper m Rotglilden lakes and possibly coincides with the uppermost larch trees along the footpath.
The upper Rotgtilden lake is surrounded by a densely packed population of Pine trees Pinus mugo. This plant association is not found in the typical habitat of claudina. It can be assumed that the specimens labelled m may in fact have been caught below m along the footpath from the lower to the upper Rotgiilden lake. F abricius , : the species was described for the first time in by Fabricius on p. Kudrna states that this collection was destroyed in a fire in O chsenheimer [vol. Thurner was one of the late users of the name arete.
E mbacher , in litt. The younger specific name becomes a younger or primary homonym of the older specific name and must be substituted. ICZN, art.
If Warren is right, it is questionnable and it still remains to be clarified in accordance to the rules of ICZN. In my opinion, the generic name is "Nymphal This category includes species with special ecological requirements and a limited geographical distribution, but whose habitats are not threatened. Embacher informed me that the species is still locally common in suitable areas and that there is no real danger to its habitats. Naturschutzrecht, Miestalerstr.
According to the ordinance on the protection of nature all Satyridae are protected in Styria, with the exception of Coenonympha pamphilus and Maniola jurtina as from nr 52, pt. My thanks are also due to the German Entomology Institute, Eberswalde, for their help in digging up old publications and to the Central Library of Zurich for photographical reproduction. Basel 21 Trans ent.
Phegea, Jg. Amt der Salzburger Landesregierung, Salzburg. Lepidoptera in vol. II, Tagfalter. Plate 50 Aspects of the conservation of Butterflies in Europe, vol. Aula, Wiesbaden, p. Introduction to Lepidopterology, vol. Wiener Entomologische Monatsschrift 1 2 Verein f Steiermark 9.
Hafniae et Lipsiae, J. O c h s e n h e im e r , R, , Die Schmetterlinge von Europa. Leipzig, Gerhard Fleischer. Roos, P. Schweizerbarth, Stuttgart. London, Trustees of the British Museum Nat.
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